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Two isotopes of helium – liquid 3ne and liquid 4ne are the only liquids which become superfluid at low temperatures (the atom 3ne has the same chemical properties, as well as atom 4ne, but in its kernel one neutron.

The first interpretation of communication between a corpuscle and a wave was offered by Schrödinger. According to its hypothesis, the particle has to represent education from waves, and the of distribution of such clot of waves is equal in space.

Thus, if in the classical theory between light and electrons there were two distinctions light — waves, electrons — particles, light can appear and be absorbed, the number of electrons has to remain invariable, in a quantum with corpuscular and wave dualism peculiar to it the first distinction between light and electrons was erased. in her as well as in Lorentz's theory, the number of electrons had to remain invariable. Only after emergence of the quantum theory of a field describing mutual convertibility of elementary particles also the second was actually erased the

Really, though theoretically it is always possible with to form superpositions of waves a wave package with a in particle radius order space (for example, an electron, however, the phase speed of each monochromatic wave,

One of characteristics of the first stage of the theory of elementary particles which received the name of the quantum theory of a field is the description of mutual convertibility of particles. In particular, according to Dirac's theory there was a possible transformation of gamma quanta into couple an electron positron and back that then was confirmed

Some general properties of wave processes, group of waves the received name of a ratio of uncertainty of Heisenberg are that. So far only we will specify that neopredelennost in the quantum theory is manifestation of corpuscular and wave dualism. According to a ratio of always take place of inaccuracy or a mistake in a theoretical prediction of coordinate and an impulse, and localization of a particle is connected with inevitable spreading of its impulse. It is obvious that this circumstance does to predvychislit a classical trajectory of the movement of, i.e. the quantum theory opens essentially new properties of the microobjects which are not keeping within a framework of usual classical representations of the movement of material points.

As the electron belongs to fermions, in each cell there can be only one electron. From here very important consequences – all chemistry as chemical properties of substances are defined by interactions between the corresponding atoms follow. If electrons were bosons, all electrons of atom could occupy the same orbital corresponding to the minimum energy. Thus properties of all substance in the Universe would be absolutely others and in the form in which we know it, the Universe would be impossible.

Such situation has the analog in the history of optics. One confidence that light is a wave of a certain length, has not enough for the detailed description of behavior of light. It is necessary to write and solve still the differential equations removed by J. Maxwell which are in detail describing processes of interaction of light with substance and distribution of light in space in the form of an electromagnetic field. wrote the differential equation for material waves of de Broil, similar to Maxwell's equations for light. 's equation for one particle has an appearance

Backs. Distinction between bosons and fermions is connected with one more characteristic of elementary particles – to backs. As it is surprising, but all fundamental particles have own moment of an impulse or, in other words, rotate round its pivot-center. The impulse moment – the characteristic of a rotary motion, just as a total impulse – forward. In any interactions the moment of an impulse and an impulse remain.

admitted subsequently, as itself not quite understands how he managed to make it. But after the equation is guessed, it is necessary still to learn them to use: it is necessary to know that mean all symbols in the equation and what phenomena in atom they display. All subsequent generation of physicists of subjects is also engaged so far.